The revelation about the Oregon gasoline prices is a real shocker to me because it's my understanding that there are NO SELF-SERVICE gas stations in that state due to a law making it illegal for anyone to pump their own gas [more]... ~Roy Kendrick
regarding Okie's story
from Vol. 8 Iss. 4
Dear NW Okie,
I just want you to know about the following link to a museum of the Wizard of Oz:
It is located in Wamego, KS, and is about 14 miles from where this NW Oklahoman now lives.
regarding Okie's story
from Vol. 8 Iss. 50
Duchess & Sadie's Spring Domain
Bayfield, Colorado - The end of last week the temperatures in Durango, Colorado got up into the mid-90s. It seems awfully earlier for it to get that warm around here.
Last week we experienced an afternoon sighting of Mr. & Mrs. Mallard taking a swim around a Weaselskin Pond up at Vallecito, North of Bayfield, Colorado.
We also received a link to a Time Magazine article concerning the World War 2 bombing of a community out in the far end of "No Mans Land (Oklahoma Panhandle), entitled, War: The Bombing of Boise City - "The bombing of Boise City, OK WWII - A fledgling from the U.S. Army Air Base at Dalhart, Texas last week bungled his navigation by 45 miles. He mistook the lights of Boise City, Oklahoma (pop: 1,144) for his practice target. Aiming straight at the Baptist church and Forrest Bourk's garage, he loosed six practice bombs (each bomb: 4lb. of powder, 96lb. of sand and shell). The noise of the explosions roared through the sleeping town."
We also heard from Ylova Jean (Jaquith) Mayes concerning memories and photograph of Vada Paris.
OU T-shirt QuiltOur oldest son took this photo of the OU quilt made of OU T-shirts by Maris Ward, who made it for her brother Bill Jackson for Christmas 2009. This quilt was one of many that appeared at the Nescatunga Art Festival, 5th June, 2010, on the downtown square, in Alva, Oklahoma.
That gave me an idea to collect all my OU, OSU and Other T-shirts and make a specialty quilt for the cold Winters in the San Juan mountains.
Andarko, Texas - Dale Talkington submitted this article written by Laurie E. Jasinski [from The Online Handbook of Texas], "Anadarko, also spelled Anadarco, is a small rural community located on Farm Road 1662 about sixteen miles southwest of Henderson in southwestern Rusk County.
The town was established in the 1840s, and Julien Sidney Devereux, owner of the nearby Monte Verdi Plantation, was one of the founders.
A post office was established on November 12, 1849. William I. Barry was appointed the first postmaster. Though the post office closed in 1878, the town served area farmers into the twentieth century.
County maps in the 1930s showed homes, several churches, and a school. No population figures were available for the historic community until 2000, when Anadarko reported thirty residents.
Normandy Beach, France - This Sunday was the 66th Anniversary of the storming of the beaches of Normandy, D-Day, June 6, 1944. Many Americans remembered that day 66 years ago when allied forces penetrated Nazi-occupied Western Europe in a massive, coordinated effort that eventually turned the war against Germany.
Sixty-six years ago, June 6th, 1944, the beach at Normandy was described as covered with blood; bodies were all around, some armless, legless. It was described by those who survived, "Unbelievable! You never forget!"
We did a search on YouTube.com for D-Day and WWII video and found the following:
WWII: Operation Overlord 2/5
Normandy Landing, D-Day hours per hours
D-Day Tribute Normandy Landing 6th June 1944 Timeline
Oklahoma - Shelley Cardiel (Email: Scardiels@comcast.net) writes, "I've rescued a group of photographs which I believe all belong to the KIRKHART Family. Based on limited research I was able to locate quite a bit of information regarding this family and those included in the photographs. I've included that information along with details of the photographs below."
1. Mrs. C. E. KIRKHART, E. KIRKHART, and C. B. G., no studio or location,
older couple in their 60's, younger couple in their 20's and two young
children toddler to 5 years.
2. KIRKHART, no studio or location, appears to have been a reprint by
Chicago, IL photo studio, dated 13 Dec 1902, town indicated as "Ingersol",
first name isn't not legible, teenagers, boy and girl.
3. Unidentified Couple, no studio or location, appears to be same older
couple pictured in photo #1 above, taken 1890's, couple in 60's.
4. "Nora & Nes", taken at the Carpenter and Ketcham Studio in Stafford, KS, dated 1887, couple in their teens or 20's.
5. Unidentified children, taken at the Isreal & El Reno Studio in Wichita,
KS or Oklahoma City, OK, 1890's or early 1900's with boy about 4 years with
infant, appears to be same or similar to children in photo #1 above.
6. Unidentified children, no studio or location, 1890's or 1900's, boy
about 3 with infant, name "Alice" appears on back of photograph, very
similar in appearance to boy in Photo #1 and Photo #5 above.
7. Unidentified infant, Hare Studio in Independence, MO, 1900's, name
"Alice" appears on back of the photograph.
8. Unidentified female, no studio or location, 1890's or early 1900's,
young woman in teens or 20's, appears to be same person in Photo #2.
9. Unidentified children, no studio or location, 1890's or early 1900's,
oldest a girl about 12 years, boys 5-7 years, name "Mrs. Alice KIRKHART"
appears on back of photograph.
Charles Edgar KIRKHART b. 17 Sept 1861 in Russel's Station, OH to parents
Thomas Jefferson KIRKHART (b. 30 May 1836 in Highland Co. OH) and Elizabeth
WHITACRE (b. 20 Dec 1836 in Morrow, OH). This couple had 8 children
including, Charles Edgar; Egbert Alphonse; William M.; Nora May; Theodore
Edward; Alice S.; Oliver Minor; and Minnie Melcena KIRKHART all born in
Highland Co. OH; Warren Co. OH; Knox Co. IL; and Warren Co. IA between 1861 and 1879.
Charles Edgar married Mary Alice REEVES (b. 25 Nov 1861 in Fairfield, IA) on 20 Aug 1881 in Sandyville, IA and together they had 6 children including, Bertha Ellen; Chester Burton; Elizabeth Carrie; Maudie M.; Lester Ray; and Georgie Perle KIRKHART all born between 1882 and 1900 in Warren Co. OH; Palmyra, NE; Gate, OK; Neola, KS; and Ingersol, OK. Charles Edgar died on 25 Jan 19 in Woodward, OK. Mary Alice REEVES KIRKHART died on 16 Oct 1933 in Gate, OK.
Census records provide the following information:
1870 census of Elba Township, IL:
Thomas KIRKHART, age 34, born OH
Elizabeth KIRKHART, age 33, Keeping House, born OH
Charles E. KIRKHART, age 9, born OH, at School
Egbert A. KIRKHART, age 6, born OH, at School
Norah M. KIRKHART, age 2, born IL
1880 census of Union, IA:
Thomas J. KIRKHART, age 44, a Farmer, born OH, parents born VA
Elyabeth KIRKHART, wife, age 43, Keeping House, born OH, parents born VA
Charles E. KIRKHART, son, age 19, a Laborer, born OH
Egbert KIRKHART, son, age 16, at Home, born OH
Nora M. KIRKHART, dau, age 11, at Home, born IL
Theodore KIRKHART, son, age 9, born IL
Oliver N. KIRKHART, son, age 6, born IA
Minnie M. KIRKHART, dau, age 1, born IA
1900 census of York Township, KS:
William S. ALLEN, age 25, born May 1875, married 3 years, born IN, parents
born OH, a Farmer
Minnie M. ALLEN, wife, age 21, born Jun 1878, married 3 years, 1 child/1
living, born KS, parents born OH/IL
Charles M. ALLEN, son, age 1, born Mar 1899, born KS
Thomas J. KIRKHART, father-in-law, age 64, born May 1836, married 42 years,
born OH, parents born VA, a Farmer
Elizabeth KIRKHART, mother-in-law, age 63, born Dec 1835, 1 child/1 living,
born OH, parents born VA
1900 census of Stella Township, OK:
Charles E. KIRKHART, age 38, born Sept 1861, married 19 years, born OH,
parents born OH, a Farmer
Mary A. KIRKHART, wife, age 38, born Nov 1861, married 19 years, 6
children/4 living, born IA, parents born OH/IN
Bertha E. KIRKHART, dau, age 17, born Jun 1882, born IA
Chester KIRKHART, son, age 15, born Jan 1885, born NE, a Farm Laborer
Lester Ray KIRKHART, son, age 9, born May 1890, born KS
1910 census of Adams Township, OK:
Charles E. KIRKHART, age 48, married 28 years, born OH, parents born OH, a
Mary A. KIRKHART, wife, age 48, married 28 years, 6 children/4 living, born
IA, parents born OH/IN
Burton C. KIRKHART, son, age 25, born IA, a Carpenter
Lester R. KIRKHART, son, age 16, born KS, a Farm Laborer
Georgia P. KIRKHART, son, age 9, born OK, a Farm Laborer
Louisa C. REEVES, mother-in-law, age 70, a widow after 55 years, 9
children/4 living, born IN, parents born KY/TN
1910 census of Stafford, KS:
Minnie ALLEN, age 30, a widow, 4 children/3 living, born H, parents born
VA/OH, Own Income
Cleo ALLEN, dau, age 11, born KS, parents born IN/OH
Ruth ALLEN, dau, age 9, born KS, parents born IN/OH
William ALLEN, son, age 7, born KS, parents born IN/OH
Elizabeth KIRKHART, mother, age 72, a widow, 9 children/5 living, born OH,
parents born OH
1920 census of Gate, OK:
Charley E. KIRKHART, age 58, born OH, parents born OH, a Retail Salesman
Mary A. KIRKHART, wife, age 58, born IA, parents born OH/IN
Perle KIRKHART, son, age 19, born OK, a Laborer
Eliza L. REEVES, mother-in-law, age 84, a widow, born IN, parents born KY/TN
Bayfield, Colorado - Living up here in the San Juan mountains in the Spring and beginning of Summer, there is a need to find something to repel the pesty mosquitoes. Do you have any recipes for "Natural" Mosquito repelent that works?
We did a search online for plants that repel mosquitoes. Here is what we have found so far. They say Basil Plants are wonderful companion plants. It is thought that basil plants repeal whiteflies; improve the flavor of asparagus and tomatoes. When planted with roses it will improve their growth and repel insects. It will even repel mosquitoes if you rub it on your skin. A really nifty trick at a picnic is to place stems of your basil plant over the bowls of food to stop flies from landing on your food. Has anyone tried this? Does it work?
Plants That Repel Mosquitoes
They say one more way to keep mosquitoes away from you and your yard, try planting the following attractive plants. Has anyone tried any of these plants? Do they work? OR are they just myths?
HORSEMINT - Horsemint has a scent similar to citronella. Horsemint grows wild in most of the Eastern United States, from Mexico, Texas up to Minnesota to Vermont. It is partial to sandy soils and will grow in USDA Zones 5-10. Native Americans used it as a treatment for colds and flu. It has natural fungicidal and bacterial retardant properties because it's essential oils are high in thymol.
ROSEMARY - This wonderful herb we use for seasoning is also a great, natural mosquito repellent. It has been used for centuries to keep pesky mosquitoes away. Rosemary is a native of the Mediterranean, so it likes hot, dry weather and well-drained soil. It is hardy in USDA zones 8-10, and must be grown as a pot plant in colder climates. If you happen to live in a part of the country where rosemary does not grow, you can get a good quality rosemary essential oil; mix 4 drops with 1/4 cup olive oil. Store in a cool, dry place. When it comes to fresh plant oils as natural mosquito repellents, there is every reason to have the plant in your yard, if they will grow in your area. It is an inexpensive and attractive way to boost the appearance of the landscape and have natural mosquito repellents on hand as well.
MARIGOLDS - Organic gardeners have used marigolds as companion plants to keep aphids away. Mosquitoes don't like its scent any better (and some humans feel the same way). Marigolds are sun-loving annuals that come in a variety of shapes and sizes for almost any landscape. They are quite easy to grow from seed.
AGERATUM - This charming little bedding plant contains coumarin, and mosquitoes detest the smell. It is used in the perfume industry and is even in some commercial mosquito repellents. Don't rub ageratum on your skin, though. It has some other less desirable elements that you don't want to keep on your skin in quantity. Ageratums are annuals, and they come in a muted blue and white that compliments most other plantings.
MOSQUITO PLANTS - There are two types of plants that are called mosquito plants. One is a member of the geranium family that was genetically engineered to incorporate the properties of citronella. Citronella only grows in tropical places, but it is a well known repellent for mosquitoes. This plant was created to bring the repellent properties of citronella into a hardier plant. It will grow where any geranium will thrive. Many have questioned its usefulness as a mosquito repellent, but it is attractive enough to warrant planting for it's ornamental value.
The other kind of mosquito plant is agastache cana. Its common names include Texas hummingbird mint, bubblegum mint, giant hyssop, or giant hummingbird mint. As you might guess, hummingbirds are quite attracted to it. It is a New Mexico native, also found in parts of Texas. It is, in fact, a member of the mint family and its leaves do have a pungent aroma when crushed. In its native habitat, it is perennial, and is usually hardy in USDA Zones 5a-9a. It blooms late summer to early fall, so it catches hummingbirds on their annual migration. The long, medium pink flowers reel in butterflies as well.
CATNIP - One of the most powerful mosquito repellent plants is ordinary catnip. Recent studies have shown that it is ten times more effective than DEET at repelling mosquitoes. It is a short lived perennial throughout most of the United States. It is easy to grow from seed, and quickly reseeds. Aside from its intoxicating effects on cats, the leaves make a very soothing tea.
With all of these plants, the leaves must be crushed to release the aroma. Otherwise mosquitoes can't smell them. And, with rosemary and catnip, you can simply crush a few leaves and rub on your skin and clothing to enhance the effect.
Recipes for Mosquito Sprtiz
CATNIP MOSQUITO SPRITZ - MAKES ABOUT 3 CUPS
* 2 cups catnip, stemmed
* 3-4 cups mild rice vinegar
Rinse herbs, roll lightly with a rolling pin, then place them in a clean quart jar and cover with vinegar. Seal jar and store in a dark cupboard for two weeks. Shake jar lightly every day or so for two weeks. Strain into a clean jar, seal and refrigerate for up to 6 months unused. To use, spritz on exposed skin and around outdoor dining area.
CATNIP AND ROSEMARY MOSQUITO CHASING OIL - MAKES ABOUT 2 CUPS.
* 2 cups catnip, stemmed
* 1 cup rosemary, cut in 6-inch sprigs
* 2 cups grapeseed oil or any light body-care oil
Roll herbs lightly with a rolling pin and pack into a clean jar. Cover with oil, seal jar and place in a cool, dark cupboard for two weeks. Shake jar lightly every day or so for two weeks. Strain into a clean jar, seal and refrigerate for up to 8 months unused. To use, rub on exposed skin.
Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes:
Citronella Grass - Citronella grass is where companies get the citronella oil. This oil is put in candles and lanterns that can be burned in your yard to repel mosquitoes. Citronella grass is actually a tropic plant that grows to be six feet tall, so it might not be practical in the average suburban backyard.
Catnip - Catnip is an herb that is most commonly used to stuff in toys or feed to cats for their enjoyment. However, the oil from this plant has actually been found to be more than ten times better at repelling mosquitoes than DEET. Planting this plant near your patio or deck will help repel mosquitoes.
Rosemary - This garden herb also has an oil that repels mosquitoes. While they are attractive plants that both repel mosquitoes and can add interest to your cooking, they are truly tropical plants that are not hardy in cold climates. You can, however, grow rosemary in a pot and take it inside in the winter.
Marigolds - Marigolds have a particular smell that many insects and humans find objectionable. They are a good plant for repelling mosquitoes as well as insects that can attack vegetable plants and aphids. Marigolds are annuals with bright flowers that range from lemon yellow to dark oranges and reds.
Mosquito Plants - There are actually plants on the market that are simply called Mosquito plants. They are advertised as a plant that repels mosquitoes. There are different schools of thoughts on these plants. Some say they do nothing to repel mosquitoes, while other swear by them. More often than not, you can only find them through mail order and internet sales.
While all these plants repel mosquitoes in your yard, you can also make all-natural mosquito repellent from them. Simply crush the leaves or flowers to release the oils and put them in a quantity of alcohol or vodka. Once the mosquito repellent oils have infused the liquid, you can use it just as you would one of the more harmful chemical repellents.
Another Natural Homemade Insect Repellent
Place the following ingredients into a large glass container. One fat juicy lemon with a heavy rind sliced paper thin. One Tablespoon of crushed Rosemary sprinkled over the lemon slices. Pour 32 ounces of near-boiling water over the lemon and Rosemary. Cover with a clean cloth and let the liquid "steep" for at least 15 hours. After the "steeping" time, pour the liquid through cheesecloth into a clean quart size canning jar, cover and store in the refrigerator. Transfer 4 - 6 ounces at a time into a spray bottle with a fine mist applicator. Spray liberally over skin and coats. Avoid contact with the eyes. Repeat the application as frequently as required.
Oklahoma - Dale Talkington submitted this obit [from the Alva, OK, REVIEW-COURIER, Jun 3, 2010], "Rita Fae Stuever of Alva, Oklahoma died Monday, May 31, 2010, at the age of 85, after a short illness. Rita was born October 27, 1924 to Martin Fred Stuever and Tressa Kort Stuever in Blackwell, Oklahoma. She graduated from Blackwell High School in 1942. In 1946 Rita obtained her B.A. degree in English from Mount St. Scholastica in Atchison, Kansas (which is now Benedictine College).
Rita's volunteer activities focused on her strong belief in the Catholic faith and her passion for educating others. In 1950 she assisted Father Loftus with the Blackwell citywide religious census and the instruction of persons interested in the Catholic faith.
From 1950 to 1960, Rita experienced great joy through her service as a Camp Fire Leader at St. Joseph's School. Many of her students were very special to her and remained beloved life-long friends.
Rita spread knowledge of the Catholic faith working as a Catholic Extension Society volunteer from 1960 to 1963. She taught religion to children and adults in the towns of Douglas and Lusk, Wyoming, living in a cabin with other volunteer friends and traveling between the two towns to teach.
Rita returned to Oklahoma in 1963 and, for the next two years, worked in the towns of Anadarko and Ardmore. She visited parishioners and instructed migrant families on the Red River. She also taught 4th grade and special reading classes at St. Mary's School in Ardmore.
After finishing her term as an Extension Volunteer, Rita enrolled at Oklahoma State University receiving the position of Graduate Assistant, thereafter earning a Masters Degree in Elementary Education. Continuing her education, she was awarded the NDEA Fellowship for Doctor of Education studies.
Rita enjoyed proving out the educational concepts learned in her studies, often gathering data from the Schiltz and Watts children. In August 1969, Rita graduated from Oklahoma State University with a Doctorate Degree in Education with an emphasis in the teaching of reading.
Rita began teaching in the Education Department at Northwestern Oklahoma State University in Alva, Oklahoma. In December 1987, after 18 years of service, Rita retired as Professor Emeritus. She was a member of the OSU Alumni Association and OSU Posse Club. She was also a member of Delta Kappa Gamma, Oklahoma Teachers Association, International Reading Association, Oklahoma Reading Association, Little Sahara Reading Council, and the Woods County Retired Educators.
Rita was a faithful member of Sacred Heart Catholic Church in Alva, formerly serving as Altar Society President.
Rita was an avid OSU football fan. Rita and Marge faithfully traveled from Alva to OSU football games for over 35 years.
Rita was a great lover of animals and nature. Her hobbies included stamp collecting, fishing, and reading. She loved to travel, visiting many of the states, Europe and South America. She was preceded in death by her parents Martin and Tressa Stuever; her nine-year-old sister LouAnn; one niece, LouAnn Schiltz Ogden; and treasured friend Ray Gessel.
Rita is survived by one sister Donna Schiltz and husband Ray of Ponca City, Life-long friends include: Margery Berends of Alva, and Bernice (Niece) Gessel of Blackwell, and her children Steve, Alan and Terri, nieces, nephews and their families include: Gregory, Wendell and Donna Ogden of Dallas, Texas; Raymond N. Schiltz and Debra Yeary, Ponca City, Ashley and Jacob Haken, Glencoe, Susan White and husband John and their children Tressa, Megan and Brian of Sand Springs, Paul Schiltz of Ponca City, Dennis Schiltz and wife Rene, and their children Makenna, Brennan and Magdalen of Cypress, Texas, Cecilia Tarrant and husband Mark and their children Katherine, Kort, Corbin and Chandler of Tonkawa, Anita Simpson and husband Eric and their children Weslee, Reece and Owen of Tonkawa.
Rita's life was blessed with many beloved cousins, relatives and friends. Pallbearers include: Raymond Schiltz, Paul Schiltz, Dennis Schiltz, John White, Mark Tarrant, Eric Simpson, Wendell Ogden, Gregory Ogden, Brian White, Reece Simpson, Owen Simpson, Kort Davis, and Brennan Schiltz. Honorary Pallbearers include: Bernice Gessel, Sue Barthel, Barbara Rutherford, Frances Schiltz, Eleanor Dockers, and Jane Johnston (deceased).
Visitation hours was held Thursday and Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. at Roberts and Son Funeral Home located at 120 W. Padon, Blackwell, Oklahoma. Wake services was held Friday June 4, 2010 at 7:00 p.m. at St. Joseph Catholic Church in Blackwell, Rev. Larok Obwana Martin, officiating. Mass of Christian Burial was be held 11:00 a.m. Saturday, June 5, 2010 at St. Joseph Catholic Church in Blackwell, Oklahoma, Rev. Marvin Leven, officiating."
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World War II Veterans Visit Washington, DC
Lawton, Oklahoma - Homer Hawkins, Lawton, Oklahoma, says, "I was fortunate enough to be picked for the May 17th inaugral trip to Washington, DC, Along with 96 other World War Two veterans. I had a wonderful time and we toured all the memorials including, The Changing of the Guard at Arlington National Cemetery. I served in Europe with George S. Patton's Third Army for 22 months during the war. This was one of the highlights of my life to be on board with so many other veterans."
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Memories of Jaquith & Vada Paris
Seiling, Oklahoma - We heard from Ylova Jean Jaquith Mayes, of Peoria, Arizona this past week. Ylova says, "When Vada went to work for Mother (April 1932) I was just about 1 year. I was really a sick baby, I was allergic to everything, including cow's milk. Mother took me to my Aunt in Kansas. She taught Mother how to cook food. I was suffering from Malnutrition. That was when she hired Vada."
Ylova says, "Mother did not have time to work the fields and take care of a sick child. I was just so young I really don't remember much about Vada, one picture of Vada, Kenneth and myself, the first day of school. It looked like I was in the first grade.
"Kenneth remembers a lot about Vada. He did tell me a funny story. Gene and Vada had flown down to Seiling and landed in a pasture. The next day they went out to leave and a cow had eaten a hole in the plane, so they fixed it with wire, box and tape. Flew just fine.
Daddy said without the wire Gene couldn't fly that plane. I remember one time Mother went to Alva to see all of you. I remember a well inside the back porch. That water was so good. I think you girls were in your teens. I do remember Vada being so sweet and loving. I needed that. Thanks for the revisit into my past."
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1908 Wright Bros. Register Flying Machine
Kitty Hawk, - 1908 - The Wright brothers register their flying machine for a U.S. patent. The Wright brothers were granted a patent by the U.S. Patent Office in 1906 for a flying machine. This patent was based on the application they had submitted in 1903 that had included a detailed description and drawings of their control system as applied to a glider. Their application described wing warping, as well as the entire system that allowed the aircraft to be controlled in forward flight. The Wrights had also stated in their application that a feature like ailerons could provide lateral control.
The Patent - The Wright brothers wrote their 1903 patent application themselves, but it was rejected. In January 1904 they hired Ohio patent attorney Henry Toulmin, and on May 22, 1906, they were granted U.S. Patent 821393 for a "Flying Machine".
The patent illustrates a non-powered flying machine, namely, the 1902 glider. The patent's importance lies in its claim of a new and useful method of controlling a flying machine, powered or not. The technique of wing-warping is described, but the patent explicitly states that other methods instead of wing-warping could be used for adjusting the outer portions of a machine's wings to different angles on the right and left sides to achieve lateral (roll) control. The concept of varying the angle presented to the air near the wingtips, by any suitable method, is central to the patent. The patent also describes the steerable rear vertical rudder and its innovative use in combination with wing-warping, enabling the airplane to make a coordinated turn, a technique that prevents hazardous adverse yaw, the problem Wilbur had when trying to turn the 1901 glider. Finally, the patent describes the forward elevator, used for ascending and descending.
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1942 - United States Begins Rationing Gasoline.
May 15, 1942 gasoline rationing began in 17 eastern U.S. states, in order to help the war effort. December 02, 1942 mandatory gasoline rationing was required in all states. To get the gasoline ration classification and ration stamps, you had to certify to a local board that you needed gas and owned no more than five tires.
Ration stamps were issued and pasted to an automobile windshield. A family's gasoline allotment was determined by the class of stamp displayed. The class of stamp was determined by the primary use of the car. Then the family received their coupon book and allotment of stickers.
Gasoline Ration Stamps classifications:
Class A - Black - 3 Gallons Per Week; Non Essential Travel, these were not allowed any pleasure travel for a year.
Class B - Green - 8 Gallons Per Week; Work Use, factory workers, traveling salesmen, those who had jobs that were supporting the war effort.
Class C - Red; Essential Workers, police, doctors, letter carriers
Class T - Truckers.
Class X - Politicians and very important people
United States - The Depression and Dust Bowl era of the 1930s had the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) that gave young men guidance, hope and pride. Many of those CCC workers went into the armed forces during WWII. The CCC workers and their families brought about a pride in our environment and preserving it. Do we need something of this sort of Corp today?
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program for unemployed, single men age 18-24, providing unskilled manual labor related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural areas of the United States from 1933 to 1942. As part of the New Deal legislation proposed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), the CCC was designed to provide relief for unemployed youth who had a very hard time finding jobs during the Great Depression while implementing a general natural resource conservation program on public lands in every U.S. state, including the territories of Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
The CCC became the most popular New Deal program among the general public, providing jobs for a total of 3 million young men from families on relief. Implicitly the CCC also led to awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources, especially for city youth. The CCC was never considered a permanent program and depended on emergency and temporary legislation for its existence. On June 30, 1942 Congress voted to eliminate funding for the CCC, formally ceasing active operation of the program.
During the time of the CCC, volunteers planted nearly 3 billion trees to help reforest America, constructed more than 800 parks nationwide that would become the start of most state parks, developed forest fire fighting methods and a network of thousands of miles of public roadways, and constructed buildings connecting the nation's public lands.
The legislation and mobilization of the program occurred quite rapidly. Within ten days after being introduced to Congress the ECW Act was signed on 31 March 1933; on 5 April Director Fechner was appointed and War Department corps area commanders were given task to commence enrollment; the first CCC enrollee was selected 7 April and subsequent lists of unemployed men were supplied by state and local welfare and relief agencies for immediate enrollment.
The typical enrollee was a U.S. citizen, unmarried, unemployed male, 18–20 years of age. Normally the family was on local relief. Each enrollee volunteered, and upon passing a physical exam and/or a period of conditioning, was required to serve a minimum six month period with the option to serve as many as four periods, or up to two years if employment outside the Corps was not possible. Enrollees worked 40 hours a week over five days, sometimes including Saturdays if poor weather dictated. In return he received $30 a month with a compulsory allotment $22–25 sent to a family dependent, as well as food, clothing and medical care.
Decline and Disbandment 1941-1942 - Although the CCC was probably the most popular New Deal program, it never became a permanent agency. The program had been reduced in operations as the Depression waned and employment opportunities improved. Fewer eligible young men were available after conscription commenced in 1940.
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 all federal programs were revised to emphasize the war effort. Most CCC work, except for wildland firefighting, was shifted onto U.S. military bases to help with construction. The CCC disbanded one year earlier than planned, as the 77th United States Congress ceased funding, causing it to conclude operations formally at the end of the federal fiscal year on June 30, 1942.
Some former CCC sites in good condition were reactivated from 1941 to 1947 as Civilian Public Service camps where conscientious objectors performed work of national importance as an alternative to military service. Other camps were used to hold Japanese internees or German prisoners of war. After the CCC disbanded, the federal agencies responsible for administration of public lands organized their own seasonal fire crews, modeled after the CCC, which performed a firefighting function formerly done by the CCC and provided the same sort of outdoor work experience for young people.
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